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Setting up Nginx on raspberry pi ubuntu

 ·   ·  ☕ 6 min read

    Step 1 – Installing Nginx

    sudo apt update
    sudo apt install nginx

    Step 2 – Adjusting the Firewall

    List the application configurations that ufw knows how to work with by typing:

    sudo ufw app list

    You should get a listing of the application profiles:

    Available applications:
      Nginx Full
      Nginx HTTP
      Nginx HTTPS

    As demonstrated by the output, there are three profiles available for Nginx:

    Nginx Full: This profile opens both port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic) and port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic)
    Nginx HTTP: This profile opens only port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic)
    Nginx HTTPS: This profile opens only port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic)
    It is recommended that you enable the most restrictive profile that will still allow the traffic you’ve configured. Right now, we will only need to allow traffic on port 80.

    You can enable this by typing:

    sudo ufw allow 'Nginx HTTP'

    You can verify the change by typing:

    sudo ufw status

    Step 3 – Checking your Web Server

    At the end of the installation process, Ubuntu 20.04 starts Nginx. The web server should already be up and running.

    We can check with the systemd init system to make sure the service is running by typing:

    systemctl status nginx 

    Step 4 – Managing the Nginx Process

    Now that you have your web server up and running, let’s review some basic management commands.

    To stop your web server, type:

    sudo systemctl stop nginx

    To start the web server when it is stopped, type:

    sudo systemctl start nginx

    To stop and then start the service again, type:

    sudo systemctl restart nginx

    If you are only making configuration changes, Nginx can often reload without dropping connections. To do this, type:

    sudo systemctl reload nginx

    By default, Nginx is configured to start automatically when the server boots. If this is not what you want, you can disable this behavior by typing:

    sudo systemctl disable nginx

    To re-enable the service to start up at boot, you can type:

    sudo systemctl enable nginx

    When using the Nginx web server, server blocks (similar to virtual hosts in Apache) can be used to encapsulate configuration details and host more than one domain from a single server. We will set up a domain called your_domain, but you should replace this with your own domain name. To learn more about setting up a domain name with DigitalOcean, please refer to our Introduction to DigitalOcean DNS.

    Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 has one server block enabled by default that is configured to serve documents out of a directory at /var/www/html. While this works well for a single site, it can become unwieldy if you are hosting multiple sites. Instead of modifying /var/www/html, let’s create a directory structure within /var/www for our your_domain site, leaving /var/www/html in place as the default directory to be served if a client request doesn’t match any other sites.

    Create the directory for your_domain as follows, using the -p flag to create any necessary parent directories:

    sudo mkdir -p /var/www/your_domain/html

    Next, assign ownership of the directory with the $USER environment variable:

    sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/your_domain/html

    The permissions of your web roots should be correct if you haven’t modified your umask value, which sets default file permissions. To ensure that your permissions are correct and allow the owner to read, write, and execute the files while granting only read and execute permissions to groups and others, you can input the following command:

    sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www/your_domain

    Next, create a sample index.html page using nano or your favorite editor:

    nano /var/www/your_domain/html/index.html

    Inside, add the following sample HTML:


            <title>Welcome to your_domain!</title>
            <h1>Success!  The your_domain server block is working!</h1>

    Save and close the file by typing CTRL and X then Y and ENTER when you are finished.

    In order for Nginx to serve this content, it’s necessary to create a server block with the correct directives. Instead of modifying the default configuration file directly, let’s make a new one at /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain:

    sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain

    Paste in the following configuration block, which is similar to the default, but updated for our new directory and domain name:

    server {
            listen 80;
            listen [::]:80;
            root /var/www/your_domain/html;
            index index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;
            server_name your_domain www.your_domain;
            location / {
                    try_files $uri $uri/ =404;

    Notice that we’ve updated the root configuration to our new directory, and the server_name to our domain name.

    Next, let’s enable the file by creating a link from it to the sites-enabled directory, which Nginx reads from during startup:

    sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

    Two server blocks are now enabled and configured to respond to requests based on their listen and server_name directives (you can read more about how Nginx processes these directives here):

    your_domain: Will respond to requests for your_domain and www.your_domain.
    default: Will respond to any requests on port 80 that do not match the other two blocks.
    To avoid a possible hash bucket memory problem that can arise from adding additional server names, it is necessary to adjust a single value in the /etc/nginx/nginx.conf file. Open the file:

    sudo nano /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

    Find the server_names_hash_bucket_size directive and remove the # symbol to uncomment the line. If you are using nano, you can quickly search for words in the file by pressing CTRL and w.

    http {
        server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;

    Save and close the file when you are finished.

    Next, test to make sure that there are no syntax errors in any of your Nginx files:

    sudo nginx -t

    If there aren’t any problems, restart Nginx to enable your changes:

    sudo systemctl restart nginx

    Nginx should now be serving your domain name. You can test this by navigating to http://your_domain, where you should see something like this:

    Nginx first server block

    Step 6 – Getting Familiar with Important Nginx Files and Directories

    Now that you know how to manage the Nginx service itself, you should take a few minutes to familiarize yourself with a few important directories and files.


    /var/www/html: The actual web content, which by default only consists of the default Nginx page you saw earlier, is served out of the /var/www/html directory. This can be changed by altering Nginx configuration files.

    Server Configuration
    /etc/nginx: The Nginx configuration directory. All of the Nginx configuration files reside here.

    /etc/nginx/nginx.conf: The main Nginx configuration file. This can be modified to make changes to the Nginx global configuration.
    /etc/nginx/sites-available/: The directory where per-site server blocks can be stored. Nginx will not use the configuration files found in this directory unless they are linked to the sites-enabled directory. Typically, all server block configuration is done in this directory, and then enabled by linking to the other directory.
    /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/: The directory where enabled per-site server blocks are stored. Typically, these are created by linking to configuration files found in the sites-available directory.
    /etc/nginx/snippets: This directory contains configuration fragments that can be included elsewhere in the Nginx configuration. Potentially repeatable configuration segments are good candidates for refactoring into snippets.

    Server Logs

    /var/log/nginx/access.log: Every request to your web server is recorded in this log file unless Nginx is configured to do otherwise.
    /var/log/nginx/error.log: Any Nginx errors will be recorded in this log.

    Add reverse proxy on different ports

    Edit /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

            location /some/path/ {
        location /another/path/ {

    Ohidur Rahman Bappy
    Ohidur Rahman Bappy
    📚Learner 🐍 Developer